read online Reading Hopeful Monsters Author Nicholas Mosley – Sisnlaw.co.uk

Hopeful Monsters An eloquent and complex novel of ideas I remember finding this stimulating and enjoyable but would need to read it again to review it properly. Idea novels or conceptual novels are seldom literary gems That is certainly the case with this book Mosley has been smart enough to process a nice love story in his book, and to evoke very dramatic historic periods of the 20th Century especially the rise of Nazism and the Second World War The passages that revolve around these themes are the easiest to read But Mosley has given priority to the ideas and concepts, not to the story Sometimes this is to be taken literally the book contains Idea novels or conceptual novels are seldom literary gems That is certainly the case with this book Mosley has been smart enough to process a nice love story in his book, and to evoke very dramatic historic periods of the 20th Century especially the rise of Nazism and the Second World War The passages that revolve around these themes are the easiest to read But Mosley has given priority to the ideas and concepts, not to the story Sometimes this is to be taken literally the book contains numerous discussions on the major 20th Century developments in physics relativity theory, quantum theory, Heisenberg s uncertainty principle, etc , biology Darwinists versus Lamarckians and the genetic debate , psychology the wars between different psychoanalysis schools , philosophy Heidegger, Wittgenstein , ideology of course especially fascism and communism , etc Ingenious and erudite, that is the least you can say.But the uniqueness of this book is that Mosley illustrates all these perspectives by means of his concrete characters and what they experience or do amidst dramatic historic events they constantly function in one of the above mentioned scientific debates for example, as particles that attract or repel each other, or that function as matter or wave according to the observer s point of view and he constantly lets those characters, while they say or do certain things at the same time think of the underlying scientific philosophical issues in themselves resulting in an annoying repetition of I said and I thought and on top of that, Mosley again and again underlines the ethical implications of these ideas and actions That gives a certain artificial character to these dramatis personae they literally seem to be actors who create their role and also undergo him at the same time It takes quite some patience and attention to follow all this, and it makes the reading of this book utterly intriguing and difficult at the same time Hence the very different reviews by the readers of this book, from wildly enthusiastic to absolutely horrified, and hardly anything in between In the unlikely hope of being original, I opt for the ambiguous middle opinion this book is an incredible achievement of Mosley, but it is not a successful piece of fiction A sweeping, comprehensive epic, Hopeful Monsters tells the story of the love affair between Max, an English student of physics and biology, and Eleanor, a German Jewess and political radical Together and apart, Max and Eleanor participate in the great political and intellectual movements which shape the twentieth century, taking them from Cambridge and Berlin to the Spanish Civil War, Russia, the Sahara, and finally to Los Alamos to witness the first nuclear test Hopeful Monsters received Britain s prestigious Whitbread Award inPraising Mosley s ability to distill complex modes of thought, the New York Times called Hopeful Monsters a virtual encyclopedia of twentieth century thought, in fictional form First US edition by Dalkey Archive, most recent paperback by Vintage The final instalment but first in the chronological sequence of Mosley s Catastrophe Practice series is also the 89 year old Baron and Baronet s masterwork Chris has written one of those perfect reviews where noneed be said about the book, suffice to say I found Mosley s stylistic tics often repetitive and his structuring not 100% lucid, hence the withering four stars On the whole, I agree with Chris s summary and regret that my take on this sweeping panorama of early 20thC thought is The final instalment but first in the chronological sequence of Mosley s Catastrophe Practice series is also the 89 year old Baron and Baronet s masterwork Chris has written one of those perfect reviews where noneed be said about the book, suffice to say I found Mosley s stylistic tics often repetitive and his structuring not 100% lucid, hence the withering four stars On the whole, I agree with Chris s summary and regret that my take on this sweeping panorama of early 20thC thought is only one paltry paragraph A splendiferous intellectual triumph and a tender hearted romance epic for adults The perfect literary end to 2012 Novel of ideas, patterns and levels Though the plot itself is engaging, the big skill on display is his making complex ideas clear The coincidences would sink the book if the characters themselves were not aware of the coincidences, to the point, yes, of making coincidence and pattern a topic of study The repetition of certain prose mannerisms would sink the book being that 2 3 narrators share the same verbal tics if there weren t different levels of interpretation operating This is a book Novel of ideas, patterns and levels Though the plot itself is engaging, the big skill on display is his making complex ideas clear The coincidences would sink the book if the characters themselves were not aware of the coincidences, to the point, yes, of making coincidence and pattern a topic of study The repetition of certain prose mannerisms would sink the book being that 2 3 narrators share the same verbal tics if there weren t different levels of interpretation operating This is a book of lacunae and the off stage It may not be for everyone, but I quite liked it I have a feeling that to fully appreciate this I would have to read the other 4 related novels Then perhaps I would be stunned at the magnitude of what Mosley has created For now, I ll just imagine it as negative space RIP Nick Alas, we barely knew ye The music had made my mind go blank I had thought If I were a snake, yes, I would be being drawn up out of a basket Hopeful Monsters is a book of ideas some ideas complement each other and some ideas collide Nothing is that which makes possible the revelation of what is At first there is a war of ideas, then there is a war of ideologies and then there is a total war You can run towards love and perhaps bump into it and you can watch it running away but when it is there it is like two p The music had made my mind go blank I had thought If I were a snake, yes, I would be being drawn up out of a basket Hopeful Monsters is a book of ideas some ideas complement each other and some ideas collide Nothing is that which makes possible the revelation of what is At first there is a war of ideas, then there is a war of ideologies and then there is a total war You can run towards love and perhaps bump into it and you can watch it running away but when it is there it is like two people coming face to face on a tightrope they have to keep moving or they will fall they would like to pass into, through, one another at moments this is possible And among ideas there is an idea of love love comes and goes and it interacts with the other ideas That which experiments is in a sense the same as that which is experimented on but to understand understanding would there not have to be developed some further level of mind When we observe an object we see in it mostly what we want to see so any observed object is a kind of a distorting mirror of our own mind This is one of a handful of books that will accompany me to the end of my days I ve read it three times and will continue to read it It encapsulates a lot of what I hold dear and believe in A few days ago I was rumagging a box with old correspondence and in one of the letters this quote turned up I feel it s a luminous synthesis of what this whole story and indeed what life is aboutDuring the years that followed, Eleanor and Max were sometimes together, sometimes apart but always, th This is one of a handful of books that will accompany me to the end of my days I ve read it three times and will continue to read it It encapsulates a lot of what I hold dear and believe in A few days ago I was rumagging a box with old correspondence and in one of the letters this quote turned up I feel it s a luminous synthesis of what this whole story and indeed what life is aboutDuring the years that followed, Eleanor and Max were sometimes together, sometimes apart but always, they said, they felt themselves together as partners, that is, in the working out of some design, under the guidance of what turned up They evolved an ironic style of talking about their love and their marriage sometimes they made jokes sometimes they talked with great seriousness usually they left spaces through which a listener or observer had to make his or her own way What they seemed to be saying about marriage was that if there was disjunction there was no liveliness and if there was fusion there was no liveliness liveliness depended on openness on an energy going between When Eleanor came back from West Africa she spent some time writing a long essay on marriage In literature, she suggested, marriage was seen first as an end to be aimed at but then as something boring and even deathly when achieved what seemed to be almost impossible to write about and indeed to experience was marriage as a successfully going concern Of course, Eleanorargued, humans do get taken over by an exciting drving for surety and when this is achieved it is apt to seem second rate but what might happen if people just recognised this Could there not be a going concern on some quite different level one from which it could be seen that a drive for security, when achieved, might then have to be turned to a drive for freedom, for the sake of liveliness to be maintained and vice versa and so on this level being to do with a recognition of pattern It is a contrasting to and fro, like that of a heart beat, that is life giving one strand on its own, pursued to an end, of course is deathly As a postscript to his papers on cybernetics Max published an article in a small religious magazine Eleanor joked with him you and I are religious not because anyone would recognise us as religious, but because we have recognised all recognitions are of a code There were obvious parallels, Max argued, between the idea of cybernetic levels and the efforts that christians had made trying to establish their doctrine of the Trinity At the level of God the Father there was a simple cause and effect view of the world God made his covenants with humans, which was a way of describing something like the mechanical functioning of a thermostat if humans got too far above themselves then disasters knocked them down if they got too far below themselves they they were ready to be boosted by the inspiration of a prophet on this level humans did not much have much to say in the style of the to and fro At the level of God the Son humans were given information about how to handle such a mechanism life was indeed a matter of paradoxes by dying you lived fulfilment was achieved by sacrifice you were to love your neighbour as yourself and so on but still, in this style humans seemed to experience a somewhat helpless oscillation between ecstasy and despair But then there was, so it was said at least, the domain of the Holy Spirit, in which humans could be led into responsibility for themselves This was not so much a level as an ability to move between levels, to see a pattern by means of an inbuilt knowledge of truth such means, if observed and honoured, allowing ends to look after themselves But about this style, this spirit, the so called guide into truth , not much was ever said And of course this was perhaps necessary, because the point of this activity, this understanding, was that individuals, now being somewhat godlike, might find their own way But with this spirit humans could keep an eye on take a walk away from every know and then the mechanisms that to some extent necessarily ran themselves on the other levels the nature of the world seeming to be such that this watchfulness, alertness, gave a sense of the miracle of control Good Heavens, so how about a book that relates a German Jew girl, an English boy, atomic bombs, Einstein, Wittgenstein, Franco, Hitler, homosexuality, Communism, Fascism, Schr dingers Cat, fission, pilgrimage, prostitution, war crimes, diamond trade, Hitler, Stalin, Kammerer, genetics, lizzards, Oedipal conflicts, triangular love relations and weird sexual fetishism And evenWelcome to Hopeful Monsters Welcome to one hell of a ride.I can hear protest coming my way by now But Science Good Heavens, so how about a book that relates a German Jew girl, an English boy, atomic bombs, Einstein, Wittgenstein, Franco, Hitler, homosexuality, Communism, Fascism, Schr dingers Cat, fission, pilgrimage, prostitution, war crimes, diamond trade, Hitler, Stalin, Kammerer, genetics, lizzards, Oedipal conflicts, triangular love relations and weird sexual fetishism And evenWelcome to Hopeful Monsters Welcome to one hell of a ride.I can hear protest coming my way by now But Science is so boring I want to explore the world and live and love and be part of history Why not both Mosley effortlessly combines science and fiction in this magnificent novel about the Jewish Eleanor Anders and the British Max Ackerman It s roughly an epistolary novel, but if you were expecting just another love story, well, think again.Who cares about some guy named Max any way Or some chick called Eleanor This book is about humanity and humankind as a whole Central to the book are the prevalent ideas on evolution of Charles Darwin to evolve, there must be certain creatures that differ from their counterparts in a way which allows them to have a certain advantage over them Think of it as one giraffe having a slightly longer neck than the others, permitting it to eatleaves and thus surviveeasily These creatures are the hopeful monsters , emissaries of change and eventually improvement of existing species Story wise this means that Max and Eleanor will identify with these hopeful monsters.The context is the main reason for this concordance I mean, pre World War II Europe was a pretty mad place Fascist tried to kill Communists who tried to kill Trotskyists who tried to kill Stalinists who tried to kill Fascists again I suppose who tried to kill Jews who didn t really try to kill any body except anarchists I guess because everyone seems to want to kill anarchists in this book There s a whole lot of destruction going on, ultimately Great attention is given to the image of the Bomb , the ultimate weapon of destruction which should stop the war dead in its tracks Operation Manhattan, primarily out of fear that the Nazi s should develop a similar weapon before the Allied troops THERE IS SO MUCH SCIENCE IN THIS BOOK Mosley is incredibly intelligent, as he manages to interweave complex philosophy and physics with personality traits of Max, Eleanor and the other characters, culminating in some sort of brilliant spaghetti bolognaise of erudite writing BUT IT S ALSO A LOVE STORY Max and Eleanor seem to be two gravitational poles attracting and repelling each other throughout the book, meeting at random moments in each other s lives Their conversations seem almost surreal, any given character in this book is way too incredible and strong to actually exist, but isn t that just what we love in a good book The capacity to transcend ourselves and our own boring perception of events Hopeful Monsters does all this, and it does so quite brilliantly I ve been complaining about the lack of ambition in contemporary fiction well, in Belgium any way and this book proves that it can still be done It s a huge feat by MC Mosley, a slam dunk, a modern White Album by the Beatles, hell, it beats Big Brother Seriously though, you should read this novel philosophic treaty scientific introduction to everything I feel enlightened up to the point that there will never be anydarkness in the universe Ever.PS For ain depth and serious review, I recommend Chris s review which is very thorough andthan worth reading More than this bravo review any way.PPS I had typed anotherserious review of this but I pushed the wrong button and it all disappeared alas I spent ten consecutive hours crying, cursing the Prophet, throwing egg shells at Justin Bieber s house and eating Ben Jerry s but now I m feeling better Thanks Nothing at all like I had anticipated and the most pleasant literary surprise I ve experienced since Iain Sinclair s Downriver Incredibly precise and measured, thoughtful almost to the point of ponderousness, philosophically heavy and deft at the same time, working its peculiarly compulsive and latticed progress through a pair of peripatetic and enigmatic souls in the interwar period Eleanor Anders and Max Ackerman who experience what might be termed gravitational love, the interlinking of Nothing at all like I had anticipated and the most pleasant literary surprise I ve experienced since Iain Sinclair s Downriver Incredibly precise and measured, thoughtful almost to the point of ponderousness, philosophically heavy and deft at the same time, working its peculiarly compulsive and latticed progress through a pair of peripatetic and enigmatic souls in the interwar period Eleanor Anders and Max Ackerman who experience what might be termed gravitational love, the interlinking of thought processes, philosophical developments, life experiences, and physical attractions stemming from a particulate collision between them upon their first meeting as younglings at a Volkswanderung gathering in the early nineteen twenties two individuals alienated and harmonized as they survey the double helix of science and philosophy evolving along with them and wending the rippling and erupting terrain of a Europe convulsed by the rise and spread of Communism, Fascism, Anarchism, and Anti Semitism and tunneling through the Stalinist Purges, the Spanish Civil War, and, of course, the Second World War towards something quite special a breaching of the patterned surface of our predicament in order to attune consciousness to the symphonic currents of chance which carry along the waters of lived reality.Mosley s considerable erudition is on display throughout, but in a manner entirely copacetic to and in furtherance of the themes he is exploring via his pseudo epistolary narrative pairing His elegant fastidiousness exists for a purpose and thus many of the stylistic complaints I ve read about here and elsewhere regarding the way in which he constructs his dialogues and interiorities, while arguably valid on the aesthetic level, are functionally tone deaf and fuck it, this is a beautiful work of art, with exquisite moments that are revealed in phrases often set up a hundred or two pages back that strike the literary heart like a hammer blow, impart their passionate wisdom with a fiery kiss, or blossom with a fragrance that weakens the knees with its poignant timeliness Yet with that said, I might hesitate in recommending this across the board this is some dense, pause and ponder per paragraph quality stuff, with an intricate and subtle marriage between story development and the minute probing of human consciousness within the fields of science, philosophy, history, sexuality, psychology, warfare, and evolution, all set to the musical accompaniment of that old human chestnut kith and kin In other words, you might have to be in the mood for five hundred and fifty pages in which every level of existence is examined, questioned, shaken and stirred, as much for the reader to pursue and develop as the characters within and not the least important of the questions undertaken is that of determining whether human beings are, at heart, irremediably insane portrait models and stage actors all frozen and frenzied in scapes and scenes of a demented hue and cry and doomed to one day snuff the flame out entirely ere evolutionary progression has advanced to a stage at which another candle may be lit and why such an inherent destructive madness may be a vital constituent element of mankind s capacity to mount the aforementioned, tallow endowing stage.It may be that existence requires hopeful monsters, mutations hatched upon the world before their time of which the Jews may have been an early exemplar who, in surviving in an environment hostile to their altered being, may exert a profound effect upon it the masses, maze bound and trapped, desperately trying to grip and follow an elusive thread through the passageways whilst avoiding the nasty bumps and protuberances in the corners, cannot see that they are held in their circular absorptions, their gravity born stasis, locked into construing patterns from historical shapes and remembrances that, in their half truths and ritualized routines, at times frozen snapshots as in a vast painting, serve to make life endurable One of the most encompassing of these patterns is language, an invention to describe the inventions we have imposed in palimpsests upon our existence in an attempt to supersede our predicament and both Max and Eleanor ponder whether, if God is Silence, our complex languages, in such a vast array of flavors and textures, have not irrecoverably removed his Heaven from our reach, if not our comprehension In symbols and mythologies we have packaged much of what struck our primordial sensibilities as being true, though with each revolution of the wheel such codings becamedifficult to discern and decipher and now, in a life filled with coincidences once deemed divine will, with experimentations reaching down into the realm of the invisible where once were cast spells, we can intuit but not realize the desirability of conjoining the inside and the outside worlds The monsters might just be able to not only see the predicament, but see through it and, if monstrous enough, able to crack the patterns sufficiently to allow a portion of the light beyond to shine forth and reveal itself to those wrapped up in themselves and continually being struck in the back of the head by the tunnel vision stares with which they view their lives Some rambling thoughts that occurred to me once I d set this extraordinary Whitbread winning wonder aside Humans exhibiting particle behavior the wave form of energy, the all, become the particle form of the individual the fact of being observed enters the observer into the reality of that which is being examined and alters its essential nature The individual who perceives himself performs changes before the stare of the other, who then perceives the person who pantomimes before their senses in a singular manner thus every solitary soul inhabits a sensory universe unique to themselves Humans as wave particle dualities gravity inhering in souls Quantum uncertainty as a metauniversal bedrock reality the patterns established upon this cosmic chanciness by our conscious minds in order to make living bearable The circularity of determining whether consciousness arose from the universe or the universe arose from consciousness when we fully understand this paradox will we have moved further towards what it is that we are are meant to beThe power unleashed by the breaking apart of the atom as the power released by the shattering of patterns of consciousness such a force, immanent with the potentiality for catastrophe, a required energy for the augmentation of humanity s capacity for elevating itself to a higher tier along the evolutionary progression the power to destroy and the power to create the dialectic by which we can conceive of new permutations of our existence within an uncertain cosmos and reassemble new patterns that encode this information for the stabilizing of living reality the light of observation circling the universe bent by gravity to strike the observer in the back of the head perceived existence to be settled to be overturned to be settled anew, the cycle of life as ordered with consciousness evolving understanding of the constitution of reality The hopeful monsters who are alienated from their species existing level of evolution are as the emitted alpha particles from an instance of radioactive decay in existence if two such particles should collide, do they impart a portion a gravitron of their being to the other, such that at any given moment each bears an influence upon the other If one such being was observed and thus altered in nature to reflect the intrusion of the observer, could its linked companion be known without the disturbing interference of the other being brought to bear Would two such particulate beings, ever drawn towards their mutated kin in the swim of time, have the capacity to course with this gravitational attraction to the degree of rising above the patterned routines of the everyday world and espying the ebb and flow of chanciness that stirs and directs encoded existence Would this higher level awareness enhance the wherewithal of such a pairing of decayed progeny to lift their maze bound brethren out of their tessellated torpor and unto this elevated evolutionary tier Would this process constitute a ladder that rises towards the Godhead, The Patternless State, SilenceThe development of the atomic bomb the logical result of the bifurcations of man s love of power and fear of power, man s longing for death as a surceasing and for the death of others as an easing The emergence of a means for enacting these desires terrors lifts us to a new position on the board, one from which with the appropriate understanding of what has occurred we can look down from above at where we were and the route we took One of the most interesting aspects of Max and Eleanor s long unconsummated love affair was the lack of jealously for the most part displayed by either, despite their being aware of the growing number of lovers that the heart made fonderabsentee was taking on It was handled quite subtly by Mosley, a well proportioned admixture of the destructive aspects of jealousy that the two witnessed as youths Max in the possessiveness of his mother, Eleanor in the bitterness of her mother together with the glamour shredding clarity they were able to bring to bear upon the tragic and ruinous elements immanent within the human condition Towards the end of the book, Max muses about mutations and the decay of radioactive matter, and how we can encompass our understanding of the word random within the statistical probability of such a particle emission therefore, are mutations simply an instance of the state of being observed Is the evolutionary process of life on this planet dependent upon the production of beings whose gaze consciousness allows the probability of mutation to come into play Should an increasing mass of cognizant beings realize an increasing likelihood of genetic mutations occurring In regard to something like cancer, a cellular affliction, would we chart an increase in the number of cancer cases above what would be consistent with a leveled rise in the population to reflect this correlation If the universe contains a sufficiently large enough number of observers, would it begin to undergo mutations at a dramatic rate Let s start with the chronological fact that this novel, the author s recognized masterpiece, is the prequel to four other novels written earlier The child is father to the man kind of head twinger So don t expect this review to be linear.There are dozens of characters including cameos by Einstein, Rosa Luxemburg, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Jung and all the scientists who worked on the atomic bomb So there are journeys into physics, biology, evolution, and psychoanalysis, as well as the politic Let s start with the chronological fact that this novel, the author s recognized masterpiece, is the prequel to four other novels written earlier The child is father to the man kind of head twinger So don t expect this review to be linear.There are dozens of characters including cameos by Einstein, Rosa Luxemburg, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Jung and all the scientists who worked on the atomic bomb So there are journeys into physics, biology, evolution, and psychoanalysis, as well as the political teeterings between communism, fascism and everything else Sexual teeterings, too, in a novel where everyone sleeps with everyone, gender choices as mixed as political leanings One might even sleep with a Nazi if it gets you across a border For there are physical journeys as well, the story beginning in Cambridge and Berlin, but churning through Russia, West Africa, Spain, Switzerland and an American desert.There are recurring themes, motifs, phrases Pick one any one and you could go down a rabbit hole Here we go There is a character sketching a hand sketching a hand sketching a hand Later, the author says that something is like sketching a hand sketching a hand sketching a hand And much later still An actor comes on he is watched he watches himself being watched he watches himself watching.It made me think that I was reading about me reading about me reading I wanted to scream I m trapped in an Escher painting So I closed the book with a snap, cover up M.C Escher, The Fall of Man Well, that explains that Except, Escher didn t paint a snake in the tree, tempting Eve It s, instead, an art deco salamander There are salamanders in this story, part of a salamander experiment to see if a macro mutation within a species can then be inherited These are the Hopeful Monsters, which was is a hotly debated scientific hypothesis It s used here as allegory, of course, where any macro mutation Nazis, communism, the Bomb changes the course of things, and spreads its seeds.There s another painting discussed The Annunciation by Domenico Veneziano Here There is no Biblical style annunciation in this book, as far as I could tell However, over and over there are two people facing each other with a pathway or a door just beyond them A tableaux The painting kept popping back into my mind when I would read such as that shelter is like the closed door at the back of a courtyard Or Towards the centre of the town there were rows of buildings with brown arcades and arches Or The two Spaniards sat facing each other in the cabin at the back and rolled cigarettes Or we are in some sort of no man s land the insurgents on one side of the river, and the government forces are on the other In this last, the main female character, wearing white overalls, walks out, thinking Perhaps all in white I will seem to be the Virgin Mary.And Perhaps the reader got it wrong It is a book that requires attention The reader is like the main characters who speak many languages but continuously run into people who spoke in a dialect that I did not understand.The reader, too, is like the main character who repeatedly interrupts events or himself with Then but this is ridiculous Not that the writing is so, but the wars, the politics, the relationships This book demands that you enter it, like the hand sketching the hand, the actor watching himself act I have sometimes thought that people like us, you and I, by being observers, might be carriers of what might come after It would have been hard to watch the other animals dying, that first camel that got across a desert Perhaps the reader didn t get it wrong and this book is itself some macro mutation which will cause its own evolution, its own spreading of seeds Which is to say, I m still curious about this one, Josh But then this is ridiculous There was this quote within that didn t fit into whatever point I was trying to make in my review but which otherwise seemed profound and pertinent History is put together from what people want to say or to remember but how little of what is written seems to do with what an individual on the spot has experienced History for the most part is made up from the public professions of politicians, but politicians are not primarily concerned with truth, so history becomes a statistical amalgam of special pleadings This book talks often about coincidences, and there are indeed a fair number of coincidences occurring in the development of plot Well, I found this book in a library s used book sale and got it for a buck It wasn t until I got home that I brushed the pages with my hand and found a business card from a dentist, a man I played golf with regularly at one time, with a handwritten reminder to Paul that he had a dental appointment one April morning in 1992 From its placement in the book, I don t think Paul made it across this desert


About the Author: Nicholas Mosley

Nicholas Mosley was educated at Eton and Oxford He served in Italy during World War II, and published his first novel, Spaces of the Dark, in 1951 His book Hopeful Monsters won the 1990 Whitbread Award.Mosley was the author of several works of nonfiction, most notably the autobiography Efforts at Truth and a biography of his father, Sir Oswald Mosley, entitled Rules of the Game Beyond the Pale.


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